Diversity & Inclusion Resources

Culturally Appropriate Care

The ARC-PA standards highlight the importance of cross cultural communication by stating a PA program curriculum “must include instruction to prepare students to provide medical care to patients from diverse populations.” An annotation to this standard goes on to comment that “quality health care education involves an ongoing consideration of the constantly changing health care system and the impact of racial, ethnic and socioeconomic health disparities on health care delivery.” The following resources will be useful for educators and learners alike to explore resources related to cultural competency, cultural humility and cross cultural communication.

Health Disparities, Health Equity, and Bias

The term health disparity refers to a population-specific difference in disease, health outcome, quality of health care and/or access to health care service. In order to minimize health care disparities, it is imperative for health care providers to be educated on the prevalence, root causes and consequences of these disparities. The following resources can be used for educators and students to explore resources related to the examination and education regarding health disparities.

Health Literacy

The following are resources that can be used by PA educators to teach PA students how to improve patient care for individuals with low health literacy.

LGBT Inclusion

An often under-looked area in the goal towards minimizing health disparities is in the area of LGBT health. Some educators feel ill-equipped to teach LGBT-competent care or to assist students in facing biases in this area. This page contains numerous resources to help the PA educator accomplish this task.

Social Determinants of Health

Understanding the social determinants of health can shed insight into the health status of our population. True health equity will not be achieved until we address the effects of physical environment, social environment, health services systems, individual behavior, biology and genetics. The resources on this page will help the PA educator to help students understand the interplay of all of these factors.


Email us at culturalcompetencies@paeaonline.org to suggest a resource. Include a link to the resource, a short description of the resource, and why you think it would make a useful addition to our collection.